### Mathematics

Course offerings engage students in problem solving and thinking mathematically. The learning of mathematics is an active process through which students are exposed to a broad content that reveals the usefulness of mathematics. Mathematics course offerings engage students in exploring, conjecturing, problem solving, communicating, reasoning and proof using a variety of technologies, including the graphing calculator.

Algebra II follows Geometry in the sequence of academic mathematics courses. Problem-solving skills are developed through algebraic, geometric, trigonometric and statistical applications. At the end of this course students may be tested on the Algebra II Standards of Learning.

Trigonometry will be investigated through the study of trigonometric definitions, applications, graphing, and solving trigonometric equations and inequalities. Emphasis is placed on connections between right triangle ratios, trigonometric functions and circular functions. In addition, modeling and realistic applications are used throughout the course. Students will learn to communicate using the language of mathematics, logic of procedure and interpretation of results. Graphing calculators, computers and other technologies will be used as tools to assist in teaching and learning.

This year-long course combines study of Advanced Algebra and Trigonometry. Students will investigate multiple representations of functions through mathematical modeling of real-world situations. Trigonometry will be investigated through the study of trigonometric definitions, applications, graphing and solving trigonometric equations and inequalities. Students will be working collaboratively to communicate using the language of mathematics, logic of procedure and interpretation of results.

Advanced Algebra extends concepts from Algebra II with an emphasis on investigating multiple representations of functions. Topics include linear algebra, logarithmic and exponential functions, and analytic geometry, including conic sections. Students will investigate mathematical modeling through real-world data collection using graphing calculators and CBRs.

Students will find means and variances of random variables, simulate binomial and geometric probability distributions, interpret sampling distributions and understand the Central Limit Theorem. Students will plan and conduct an experiment, apply hypothesis-testing and conduct both large sample significance tests and Chi-square tests. This includes applying t-distributions to single and two-sample t-procedures, using tables or graphing. All students will display and analyze data using a graphing calculator and a statistical software package. Students in the year-long class will use statistical inference to draw conclusions about a population based on sample data and use probability to determine the reliability of the conclusions.

Honors Geometry is for the accelerated mathematics student. The problems of this course are more challenging than those of the academic Geometry course. Congruent triangles, parallel lines, circles, areas and volumes, similarity, and techniques for writing proofs will be studied in depth. At the end of this course students will be tested on the Geometry Standards of Learning. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

Honors Algebra II is a course for the accelerated mathematics student. An in-depth study of the structure and concepts of algebra is stressed. Challenging problems which help develop problem-solving skills are emphasized. At the end of this course students will be tested on the Algebra II Standards of Learning. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

This course is designed for the accelerated mathematics student. It encompasses and extends topics and concepts of intermediate algebra with an emphasis on functions. Topics include circular, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, linear algebra, analytic geometry and topics from discrete math and calculus. Note: A grade of at least “B” in Honors Algebra II is recommended before enrolling in this course. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

Calculus is the fifth year of the academic mathematics sequence which begins with Algebra I in the eighth grade. Topics include limits, derivatives, integrals and their applications.

This course is for the student who has been very successful in the honors mathematics program. The pace is faster than the Honors Calculus course and will be more challenging. Students in this course may take the Advanced Placement Exam in Calculus AB to earn college credit. With an acceptable score on this exam, students may receive college credit or advanced placement in their college mathematics course. Note: A grade of at least “B” in Honors Precalculus is recommended before enrolling in this course. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

The pace of this course allows for topics from AP Calculus AB to be taught along with the Calculus BC topics of polar coordinates integration by partial fractions, Hooke’s Law, and sequences and series. Students in this course may take the Advanced Placement Exam in Calculus BC to earn college credit. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

This course is taught according to the syllabus for Computer Science A available through the College Entrance Examination Board. Major topics in the course include programming methodology, algorithms, and data structures. Topics are extended to include constructs, data types, functions, testing, debugging, algorithms, and data structures. The Java programming language is used to implement computer-based solutions to meaningful problems. Treatments of computer systems and the social implications of computing are integrated into the course. Students have the opportunity to take the AP Computer Science A Exam with the possibility of earning college credit. AP Computer Science A can be classified as a math or as a science graduation requirement.

This course is designed to be the equivalent of a first semester introductory college course. This course introduces students to the foundational concepts of computer science and explores the impact computing and technology have on our society.

This college-level course in introductory statistics includes (1) exploring data: observing patterns and departures from patterns; (2) planning a study: deciding what or how to measure; (3) anticipating patterns in advance: introducing probability and simulation; (4) statistical inference: confirming models. There are several special problems/investigations culminating in a written report. Students should own or have access to a graphing calculator and a computer. Students may earn college credit through the AP Statistics exam. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

Students in the Capstone Mathematics course set personal goals for college and career plans by researching prerequisite mathematics courses required to place into career cluster courses. Students use pretest data from a college placement test of the Virginia College & Career Mathematics Proficiencies to identify and work on individual gaps in skills and concepts. Students are post-tested in order for students, parents, and teachers to know potential college course placement and to target next skills. College and Career Navigation, including field experiences, is included.

**Mathematics Notes:**The following notes will assist in the selection of appropriate math courses:- Criteria for placement in Honors or AP level classes: recommended score of 500 on SOL tests, an “A” or “B” in previous math classes; for AP level courses, completion of Honors level mathematics courses.
- Only one high school credit can be earned for any high school mathematics course. Recommendations to repeat a course when a grade of “D” is earned are intended to encourage improvement of mathematical skills as a foundation for success in future mathematics courses.
- Completion of Algebra II is required for an Advanced Studies diploma.

### Algebra I

**3130 (ALGEBRA I)**

1 Credit

Grades: 9–12

Algebra I is the beginning of the academic sequence of mathematics courses. It emphasizes the basic structure of the real number system, the techniques of algebra as reflections of this structure, and the acquired facility in applying algebraic concepts and skill. While the main focus of this course promotes algebraic skills, geometric and statistical concepts are integrated into the course to develop skills for practical applications. At the end of this course students may be tested on the Algebra I Standards of Learning.1 Credit

Grades: 9–12

### Geometry

**3143 (GEOMETRY)**

1 Credit

Grades: 9–12

Prerequisite: Algebra I or Department Head Screening

This course includes an emphasis on developing reasoning skills through the exploration of geometric relationships including properties of geometric figures, trigonometric relationships, and mathematical proofs. The course includes emphasis on two- and three-dimensional reasoning skills, coordinate and transformational geometry, and the use of geometric models to solve problems. At the end of this course, students may be tested on the Geometry Standards of Learning.1 Credit

Grades: 9–12

Prerequisite: Algebra I or Department Head Screening

### Algebra, Functions and Data Analysis

**3134 (ALGFUNGDATA)**

1 Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Geometry or department head screening

This course offers relevant, real-world experiences taught through hands-on investigations techniques using technological tools. Students will work with real-life data, conduct labs, complete projects and prepare presentations of findings. This course will prepare students to take Algebra II.1 Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Geometry or department head screening

### Algebra II

**3135 (ALG II)**

1 Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Geometry1 Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Geometry

Algebra II follows Geometry in the sequence of academic mathematics courses. Problem-solving skills are developed through algebraic, geometric, trigonometric and statistical applications. At the end of this course students may be tested on the Algebra II Standards of Learning.

### Trigonometry

**3150 (TRIG)**

½ Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Algebra II½ Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Algebra II

Trigonometry will be investigated through the study of trigonometric definitions, applications, graphing, and solving trigonometric equations and inequalities. Emphasis is placed on connections between right triangle ratios, trigonometric functions and circular functions. In addition, modeling and realistic applications are used throughout the course. Students will learn to communicate using the language of mathematics, logic of procedure and interpretation of results. Graphing calculators, computers and other technologies will be used as tools to assist in teaching and learning.

### Advanced Algebra/Trigonometry

**31601 (Ad.AlgTrig.)**

1 Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Algebra II1 Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Algebra II

This year-long course combines study of Advanced Algebra and Trigonometry. Students will investigate multiple representations of functions through mathematical modeling of real-world situations. Trigonometry will be investigated through the study of trigonometric definitions, applications, graphing and solving trigonometric equations and inequalities. Students will be working collaboratively to communicate using the language of mathematics, logic of procedure and interpretation of results.

### Advanced Algebra

**31605 (ADV ALG)**

½ Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Algebra II½ Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Algebra II

Advanced Algebra extends concepts from Algebra II with an emphasis on investigating multiple representations of functions. Topics include linear algebra, logarithmic and exponential functions, and analytic geometry, including conic sections. Students will investigate mathematical modeling through real-world data collection using graphing calculators and CBRs.

### Probability and Statistics

**31901 (PROB/STAT)**

1 Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Algebra II1 Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Algebra II

**31905 (PROB/STAT)****½ Credit**

Grades: 11–12Grades: 11–12

**Prerequisite: Algebra II**Students will find means and variances of random variables, simulate binomial and geometric probability distributions, interpret sampling distributions and understand the Central Limit Theorem. Students will plan and conduct an experiment, apply hypothesis-testing and conduct both large sample significance tests and Chi-square tests. This includes applying t-distributions to single and two-sample t-procedures, using tables or graphing. All students will display and analyze data using a graphing calculator and a statistical software package. Students in the year-long class will use statistical inference to draw conclusions about a population based on sample data and use probability to determine the reliability of the conclusions.

### Honors Geometry

**3143X (H GEOM)**

1 Credit

Grades: 9–10

Prerequisite: Algebra I1 Credit

Grades: 9–10

Prerequisite: Algebra I

Honors Geometry is for the accelerated mathematics student. The problems of this course are more challenging than those of the academic Geometry course. Congruent triangles, parallel lines, circles, areas and volumes, similarity, and techniques for writing proofs will be studied in depth. At the end of this course students will be tested on the Geometry Standards of Learning. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

### Honors Algebra II

**3135X (H ALG II)**

1 Credit

Grades: 9–12

Prerequisite: Honors Geometry1 Credit

Grades: 9–12

Prerequisite: Honors Geometry

Honors Algebra II is a course for the accelerated mathematics student. An in-depth study of the structure and concepts of algebra is stressed. Challenging problems which help develop problem-solving skills are emphasized. At the end of this course students will be tested on the Algebra II Standards of Learning. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

### Honors Math Analysis

**3162X (H MTH ANALYSIS)**

1 Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Honors Algebra II1 Credit

Grades: 10–12

Prerequisite: Honors Algebra II

This course is designed for the accelerated mathematics student. It encompasses and extends topics and concepts of intermediate algebra with an emphasis on functions. Topics include circular, trigonometric, logarithmic and exponential functions, linear algebra, analytic geometry and topics from discrete math and calculus. Note: A grade of at least “B” in Honors Algebra II is recommended before enrolling in this course. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

### Honors Calculus

**3178X (HON CALCULUS)**

1 Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Honors Math Analysis or Advanced Algebra and Trigonometry1 Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Honors Math Analysis or Advanced Algebra and Trigonometry

Calculus is the fifth year of the academic mathematics sequence which begins with Algebra I in the eighth grade. Topics include limits, derivatives, integrals and their applications.

### AP Calculus AB

**3177X0 (AP CALC AB)**

1 Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Honors Math Analysis and Department Head Advisement1 Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Honors Math Analysis and Department Head Advisement

This course is for the student who has been very successful in the honors mathematics program. The pace is faster than the Honors Calculus course and will be more challenging. Students in this course may take the Advanced Placement Exam in Calculus AB to earn college credit. With an acceptable score on this exam, students may receive college credit or advanced placement in their college mathematics course. Note: A grade of at least “B” in Honors Precalculus is recommended before enrolling in this course. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

### AP Calculus BC

**3177X1 (AP CALC BC)**

1 Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Honors Math Analysis and department head advisement1 Credit

Grades: 11–12

Prerequisite: Honors Math Analysis and department head advisement

The pace of this course allows for topics from AP Calculus AB to be taught along with the Calculus BC topics of polar coordinates integration by partial fractions, Hooke’s Law, and sequences and series. Students in this course may take the Advanced Placement Exam in Calculus BC to earn college credit. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

### AP Calculus BC-2

**3177X2 (AP CAL BC-2)**

1 Credit

Grade: 12

Prerequisite: AP Calculus BC or equivalent

Multivariable Calculus presents vector-valued functions, partial derivatives, multiple integrals, matrices, vector spaces, determinants, solutions of systems of linear equations, basis and dimension eigenvalues and eigenvectors. This course is designed for students preparing for mathematical, physical science and engineering programs.1 Credit

Grade: 12

Prerequisite: AP Calculus BC or equivalent

### AP Computer Science A

**3185X (AP COMP SCI A)**

**1 Credit**

**Grades: 9-12**

Prerequisite: Algebra I

Prerequisite: Algebra I

This course is taught according to the syllabus for Computer Science A available through the College Entrance Examination Board. Major topics in the course include programming methodology, algorithms, and data structures. Topics are extended to include constructs, data types, functions, testing, debugging, algorithms, and data structures. The Java programming language is used to implement computer-based solutions to meaningful problems. Treatments of computer systems and the social implications of computing are integrated into the course. Students have the opportunity to take the AP Computer Science A Exam with the possibility of earning college credit. AP Computer Science A can be classified as a math or as a science graduation requirement.

### AP Computer Science Principles

**3184X (AP PRIN CS)**

1 Credit

Grades: 9-121 Credit

Grades: 9-12

This course is designed to be the equivalent of a first semester introductory college course. This course introduces students to the foundational concepts of computer science and explores the impact computing and technology have on our society.

### AP Statistics

**3192X (AP STATS)****1 Credit**

Grade: 12Grade: 12

**Prerequisite: Algebra II**

This college-level course in introductory statistics includes (1) exploring data: observing patterns and departures from patterns; (2) planning a study: deciding what or how to measure; (3) anticipating patterns in advance: introducing probability and simulation; (4) statistical inference: confirming models. There are several special problems/investigations culminating in a written report. Students should own or have access to a graphing calculator and a computer. Students may earn college credit through the AP Statistics exam. See Guidelines for Placement of Students in Honors/AP/Dual Enrolled Classes.

### Senior Capstone Mathematics

**31361 (CAPSTONE MTH)****1 Credit****Grade: 12****Prerequisite: AFDA or Algebra II with Department Approval**

**31365 (CAPSTONE MTH)****½ Credit****Grade: 12****Prerequisite: AFDA or Algebra II with Department Approval+**

Students in the Capstone Mathematics course set personal goals for college and career plans by researching prerequisite mathematics courses required to place into career cluster courses. Students use pretest data from a college placement test of the Virginia College & Career Mathematics Proficiencies to identify and work on individual gaps in skills and concepts. Students are post-tested in order for students, parents, and teachers to know potential college course placement and to target next skills. College and Career Navigation, including field experiences, is included.